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doctrine of frustration nz


Where a contract fails to provide any parameters for the parties to respond to Covid-19, they may wish to rely on another legal doctrine, known as frustration. A contract can also be frustrated if external events will cause significant delay or obstruction, particularly if time is of the essence in performing the contract. No matter the form of the lease, it will not have been specifically drafted to deal with COVID-19. That is where the doctrine of “frustration of contract” comes into play. As country after country closes its borders or shuts down all non-essential businesses, the effects of coronavirus are really starting to be felt. of Frustration could apply; this doctrine has high legal hurdles and if not managed carefully, it could lead to cancellation of your lease. B.Rights accrued before frustration, s 62 CCLA 6. For a party to succeed in claiming frustration, they must show that, in the relevant contract, the parties never agreed to be bound in the fundamentally different situation that had unexpectedly emerged. The Act allows certain rights to contracting parties to a frustrated contact such as; Again this is not an exhaustive list of what remedies the Act offers. If your lease is a mall lease or other bespoke type lease, then there is a strong possibility that there may not be any clause in your lease to allow you to suspend or terminate your lease obligations. Having decided that the employment contract was not frustrated, the question of whether there had been an unfair dismissal has to be determined. For example, an increase in the cost of materials or labour alone is unlikely to result in a contract being frustrated, but a sudden inability to source essential materials might. Fearing that the principle of the sanctity of contracts was at stake, the House of Lords unanimously reversed a decision of the Court of Appeals [43] which had adopted Lord Wright's formulation. Frustration might apply when a contract becomes impossible, or radically different than your purpose for entering into it. Arg Argument CCLA Contract & Commercial Law Act. Both suppliers and customers should consider how their agreements contemplate such an event – and as always, the devil will be in the detail. Doctrine of Frustration in India. Frustration is an English contract law doctrine that acts as a device to set aside contracts where an unforeseen event either renders contractual obligations impossible, or radically changes the party's principal purpose for entering into the contract. The doctrine of frustration is a legally challenging one to rely on and can also be contracted out of, by the parties,  when entering the contract. Development of the doctrine (a) Doctrine of absolute ... the Paradine approach was rebutted in Taylor, such that the doctrine of frustration was gradually evolved by the courts which mitigates the ... provision (Claude Neon) c. When the frustrating even should have been foreseen (EXAM RELEVANT). But section 56 only deals with cases of subsequent impossibility as opposed to cases of initial impossibility. Some businesses have force majeure clauses in their contracts that may enable them to delay performing their contractual obligations. A frustrated contract is one where the obligations in the contract can’t be performed because of an unexpected event or events. For example, whether the doctrine of frustration would apply or not has to be decided within the framework of the contract and, if the contract contains an arbitration clause, the arbitrator could decide the matter of frustration. In New Zealand, the Frustrated Contracts Act 1944 allows parties to recover money paid up to the date of frustration or claim compensation for work done before that date. Where the subject matter of the contract ceases to exist: Death or incapacity of a party where the contract involves obligations of a personal nature: Performance is rendered illegal by legislation, There is an ability to recovery  money paid in consideration of the contract (even if payment has been made before the date of frustration); and, The Act allows a party to claim compensation for work done and/or expenses incurred for the purposes of a contract until the date of frustration, and. What is frustration? It is possible that the performance of a contract remains entirely possible, but owing to the non-occurrence of an event contemplated by both parties as the reason for the contract, the value of the performance is … Further developments came in National Carriers Ltd v. Panalpina (Northern) Ltd [1981] AC 675, where the courts devised a ‘modern test’ for assessing whether or not the doctrine of frustration … Cases concerning “frustration” are not common and therefore the Supreme Court case of Planet Kids Ltd v Auckland Council is a useful illustration of the requirements for a contract to be “frustrated”. The Court of Appeal said that the doctrine of frustration must be kept within very narrow limits and should not be used lightly because of its drastic effect on vulnerable employees. If this point is reached the agreement/contract is “frustrated”. What is the effect of frustration on a contract? Frustration may provide a remedy where a contract does not contain a force majeure clause, or if a force majeure clause is not triggered by a pandemic. Business Owners – the importance of terms and conditions of trade, Commercial Leases – Tenant Default and Landlord’s Rights Under Covid-19 Restrictions, Body Corporates – Meetings and decision making during COVID-19 lockdown, Landlord and Tenant obligations during COVID-19 Lockdown. In some cases, they may look to terminate the contract. While every reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, Farry and Co. does not accept liability for any errors it may contain. Doctrine of Frustration: Frustration is an act outside the contract that makes it completion impossible, a good example of this is in marine contracts where a delivery is specified for a certain date and time but the crossing is so bad that the delivery cannot be made on time. At the time the parties entered into the contract, the event, or its effects, can’t have been reasonably foreseeable. The event needs to make performance of the contract impossible. Frustration applies where the performance of a contract becomes impossible or radically different from what the parties initially agreed because of a factor outside their control, for which they are not responsible. The ‘scrambled’ doctrine of frustration applies a single test to determine whether both parties to the contract are automatically discharged. Professional advice should be sought before applying any of the information to particular circumstances. II. The Doctrine of Frustration may also assist in limited situations (discussed below). The “doctrine of frustration‟ is a common law concept that allows a contract to be discharged when a certain event or event(s) occur, which is beyond the control of the parties. Frustration. A contract is not frustrated because a change in circumstances makes the contract more expensive or inconvenient to perform. Contractual promises and obligations are usually absolute, therefore this doctrine is a departure from the absolute nature of contracts and so you must ensure that the strict legal tests are satisfied in order to successfully argue frustration. It addresses the effect of the discharge of obligations on the areas of the contract already fulfilled. Doctrine of frustration The doctrine of frustration of contract allows parties to be relieved from their legal obligations where contracts have become impossible to perform. The ‘unscrambled’ version tackles the issue differently. Frustration - the legal definition. In such circumstances tenants ask if they are able to bring the lease to an end through the doctrine of frustration. In New Zealand, the Frustrated Contracts Act 1944 allows parties to recover money paid up to the date of frustration or claim compensation for work done before that date. C.Rights not accrued before frustration, s 63 CCLA 6. Home > Publications > COVID-19 can be ... the ‘doctrine of frustration’ may be able to help. Fundamental breach of contract is a controversial concept within the common law of contract.The doctrine was, in particular, nurtured by Lord Denning MR, but it did not find favour with the House of Lords.. The event must significantly alter the obligations under the contract and cannot be the fault of either party. If you require any advice or further information on the matters dealt with in this publication please contact the lawyer at Farry and Co who normally advises you, or alternatively contact: The information contained in this publication is intended as a guide only. The coronavirus and the doctrine of frustration. If you are struggling to meet your contractual obligations due to the effects of COVID-19, and your contract doesn’t contain a force majeure clause, you may be able to rely on frustration to bring the contract to an end. Businesses who don’t, or whose force majeure clauses don’t cover this situation, might find that they have to rely on the contractual doctrine of frustration. Doctrine of frustration as enshrined in Section 56 of the Indian contract act 1872 deals with those cases where the performance of contract has been frustrated and the performance of it has become impossible to perform due to any unavoidable reason or condition. The common law doctrine of frustration applies when an unforeseen event arises, by no fault of a contracting party, which: makes it impossible for parties to perform their obligations under the contract; or; makes performance of the contract radically different from what the parties originally intended. Abbreviations. If you have any questions, or you need any help with your contracts, contact James MacGillivray or Phil Taylor. It is argued that the circumstances of landlords and tenants met the test for the doctrine of frustration. Boarding House or residential tenancy?– make sure you are protected. [1] Some businesses may find themselves unable to meet their contractual obligations, whether because of shortages of labour or materials, movement restrictions, or downturns in their business. Section 56 of the Indian Contract Act: As with most laws in India, the contract act is influenced by English laws/doctrines(The act was passed when India was under colonial rule). Next post: Business Owners – the importance of terms and conditions of trade, We have an opportunity available in our Auckland office for an experienced, registered legal executive or a 3+ PQE…. Remember that this is a complex area and it is important for you to obtain legal advice before seeking to rely on frustration. Previous post: Boarding House or residential tenancy?– make sure you are protected. It releases the parties from their contract where, by no fault of either party, an intervening event makes performance impossible or radically different than what the parties agreed. In order to satisfy the doctrine of frustration an event needs to occur that is not only unforeseen but an event which significantly alters the relationship between the contracting parties. V The Doctrine of Frustration – its Limitations 42 A Provision in Contract 43 B Delay 44 . The “doctrine of frustration‟ is a common law concept that allows a contract to be discharged when a certain event or event (s) occur, which is beyond the control of the parties. The FCA confers three major benefits on parties that are supplementary to the doctrine, it: It is therefore crucial that you seek legal advice not only when problems arise but before actually entering into a contract. The event needs to make performance of the contract impossible. In law the doctrine of frustration refers to a situation where what has been agreed to, what a party has contracted to do, can no longer be done. Some examples where the doctrine of frustration has been successfully applied are set out below; This is by no means an exhaustive list and therefore you should seek legal advice on whether or not you can argue the doctrine, at the earliest opportunity. Therefore, the doctrine could have applied to leases to enable the parties to terminate them. The doctrine of frustration is applied within very narrow limits. In New Zealand the doctrine of frustration is supported by the FCA. What if my lease does not have any provision that deals with this situation? Sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest insight and news from Tompkins Wake, © 2020 Tompkins Wake. Frustration occurs where neither party has been the ‘defaulting party’ regarding their contractual obligations, but it has become incapable of performing the contract due to circumstances that are outside of the parties’ … Built by NetValue, Charities, Not for Profit & Social Enterprise, International Trade & Overseas Investment, Relationship Property, Trust Disputes & Family Law, Civil Disputes Senior Solicitor/Associate. Many legal minds making NZ LAW work We are an association of independent legal practices, proactively sharing ideas and expertise for the benefit of our clients. A contract can be frustrated if it becomes illegal for one party to perform its obligation, for example, contracting to hold a large event when large gatherings of people are banned. Having reviewed many leases and analysed the provisions, it The doctrine of frustration had thus expanded so much that, instead of interpreting the contract itself, it sought to base the excuse on extracontractual elements and considerations. The doctrine of frustration was first recognised in a very old English case of Taylor v Caldwell. The doctrine of frustration also applies to cases concerning the cancellation of an expected event. The normal position in law is that the courts uphold contracts and if one party fails to honour their side of a contract, then the other party is entitled to damages for the loss caused by the breach. repealed; Frustrated Contracts Act 1944: repealed, on 1 September 2017, by section 345(1)(f) of the Contract and Commercial Law Act 2017 (2017 No 5). If you are struggling to meet your contractual obligations due to the effects of COVID-19, and your contract doesn’t contain a force majeure clause, you may be able to rely on frustration to bring the contract to an end. It does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Farry and Co are experts in this area and can assist in all aspects of contract law. On February 18, we published an article on force majeure in the context of COVID-19.In this second article, we will compare force majeure with the common law doctrine of frustration, another option for excusing non-performance of contractual obligations.. Frustration is difficult to prove, but where an extreme event like the current coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak occurs, you’re more likely to see counterparties seeking to rely on it to extricate themselves from difficult contractual arrangements. If the contract does not contain a force majeure clause, the common law doctrine of frustration may apply. Further reading 7. The doctrine accordingly became a question of law for the courts to determine, as opposed to one of fact. [35] Act of God. Another is the doctrine of frustration, which may be relevant if the contract contains no force majeure clause covering coronavirus COVID-19 issues. Parties may look to delay, or to avoid altogether, performance of their obligations. The Frustrated Contracts Act 1944 (“the Act) also assists when dealing with the effect of the discharge of obligations on ‘parts’ of the contract which have already been fulfilled. The legal doctrine of frustration could assist with ending contracts due to Covid-19. If the effects were reasonably foreseeable at the time, the Court might conclude that the parties saw and accepted the risk of the event occurring. If a contract is frustrated, the contract ends, and the parties do not need to perform any future obligations under it. statute only intervene at the very end only during what happens during rights and payments made before it … A contract is frustrated if an unforseen event makes performance of the contract either impossible or performance is possible only in a radically different way. Where frustration occurs, the contract comes to an end and the parties are excused from further performance. The act of god is one of the important effect in the doctrine of frustration. All Rights Reserved. This may be because COVID-19 has prevented them from performing their contractual obligations, or because a part… This doctrine constitutes the Indian Contract Act,1872, … For customers and suppliers alike, delays or non-performance of obligations are an inevitable result of COVID-19. 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doctrine of frustration nz


Where a contract fails to provide any parameters for the parties to respond to Covid-19, they may wish to rely on another legal doctrine, known as frustration. A contract can also be frustrated if external events will cause significant delay or obstruction, particularly if time is of the essence in performing the contract. No matter the form of the lease, it will not have been specifically drafted to deal with COVID-19. That is where the doctrine of “frustration of contract” comes into play. As country after country closes its borders or shuts down all non-essential businesses, the effects of coronavirus are really starting to be felt. of Frustration could apply; this doctrine has high legal hurdles and if not managed carefully, it could lead to cancellation of your lease. B.Rights accrued before frustration, s 62 CCLA 6. For a party to succeed in claiming frustration, they must show that, in the relevant contract, the parties never agreed to be bound in the fundamentally different situation that had unexpectedly emerged. The Act allows certain rights to contracting parties to a frustrated contact such as; Again this is not an exhaustive list of what remedies the Act offers. If your lease is a mall lease or other bespoke type lease, then there is a strong possibility that there may not be any clause in your lease to allow you to suspend or terminate your lease obligations. Having decided that the employment contract was not frustrated, the question of whether there had been an unfair dismissal has to be determined. For example, an increase in the cost of materials or labour alone is unlikely to result in a contract being frustrated, but a sudden inability to source essential materials might. Fearing that the principle of the sanctity of contracts was at stake, the House of Lords unanimously reversed a decision of the Court of Appeals [43] which had adopted Lord Wright's formulation. Frustration might apply when a contract becomes impossible, or radically different than your purpose for entering into it. Arg Argument CCLA Contract & Commercial Law Act. Both suppliers and customers should consider how their agreements contemplate such an event – and as always, the devil will be in the detail. Doctrine of Frustration in India. Frustration is an English contract law doctrine that acts as a device to set aside contracts where an unforeseen event either renders contractual obligations impossible, or radically changes the party's principal purpose for entering into the contract. The doctrine of frustration is a legally challenging one to rely on and can also be contracted out of, by the parties,  when entering the contract. Development of the doctrine (a) Doctrine of absolute ... the Paradine approach was rebutted in Taylor, such that the doctrine of frustration was gradually evolved by the courts which mitigates the ... provision (Claude Neon) c. When the frustrating even should have been foreseen (EXAM RELEVANT). But section 56 only deals with cases of subsequent impossibility as opposed to cases of initial impossibility. Some businesses have force majeure clauses in their contracts that may enable them to delay performing their contractual obligations. A frustrated contract is one where the obligations in the contract can’t be performed because of an unexpected event or events. For example, whether the doctrine of frustration would apply or not has to be decided within the framework of the contract and, if the contract contains an arbitration clause, the arbitrator could decide the matter of frustration. In New Zealand, the Frustrated Contracts Act 1944 allows parties to recover money paid up to the date of frustration or claim compensation for work done before that date. Where the subject matter of the contract ceases to exist: Death or incapacity of a party where the contract involves obligations of a personal nature: Performance is rendered illegal by legislation, There is an ability to recovery  money paid in consideration of the contract (even if payment has been made before the date of frustration); and, The Act allows a party to claim compensation for work done and/or expenses incurred for the purposes of a contract until the date of frustration, and. What is frustration? It is possible that the performance of a contract remains entirely possible, but owing to the non-occurrence of an event contemplated by both parties as the reason for the contract, the value of the performance is … Further developments came in National Carriers Ltd v. Panalpina (Northern) Ltd [1981] AC 675, where the courts devised a ‘modern test’ for assessing whether or not the doctrine of frustration … Cases concerning “frustration” are not common and therefore the Supreme Court case of Planet Kids Ltd v Auckland Council is a useful illustration of the requirements for a contract to be “frustrated”. The Court of Appeal said that the doctrine of frustration must be kept within very narrow limits and should not be used lightly because of its drastic effect on vulnerable employees. If this point is reached the agreement/contract is “frustrated”. What is the effect of frustration on a contract? Frustration may provide a remedy where a contract does not contain a force majeure clause, or if a force majeure clause is not triggered by a pandemic. Business Owners – the importance of terms and conditions of trade, Commercial Leases – Tenant Default and Landlord’s Rights Under Covid-19 Restrictions, Body Corporates – Meetings and decision making during COVID-19 lockdown, Landlord and Tenant obligations during COVID-19 Lockdown. In some cases, they may look to terminate the contract. While every reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this publication, Farry and Co. does not accept liability for any errors it may contain. Doctrine of Frustration: Frustration is an act outside the contract that makes it completion impossible, a good example of this is in marine contracts where a delivery is specified for a certain date and time but the crossing is so bad that the delivery cannot be made on time. At the time the parties entered into the contract, the event, or its effects, can’t have been reasonably foreseeable. The event needs to make performance of the contract impossible. Frustration applies where the performance of a contract becomes impossible or radically different from what the parties initially agreed because of a factor outside their control, for which they are not responsible. The ‘scrambled’ doctrine of frustration applies a single test to determine whether both parties to the contract are automatically discharged. Professional advice should be sought before applying any of the information to particular circumstances. II. The Doctrine of Frustration may also assist in limited situations (discussed below). The “doctrine of frustration‟ is a common law concept that allows a contract to be discharged when a certain event or event(s) occur, which is beyond the control of the parties. Frustration. A contract is not frustrated because a change in circumstances makes the contract more expensive or inconvenient to perform. Contractual promises and obligations are usually absolute, therefore this doctrine is a departure from the absolute nature of contracts and so you must ensure that the strict legal tests are satisfied in order to successfully argue frustration. It addresses the effect of the discharge of obligations on the areas of the contract already fulfilled. Doctrine of frustration The doctrine of frustration of contract allows parties to be relieved from their legal obligations where contracts have become impossible to perform. The ‘unscrambled’ version tackles the issue differently. Frustration - the legal definition. In such circumstances tenants ask if they are able to bring the lease to an end through the doctrine of frustration. In New Zealand, the Frustrated Contracts Act 1944 allows parties to recover money paid up to the date of frustration or claim compensation for work done before that date. C.Rights not accrued before frustration, s 63 CCLA 6. Home > Publications > COVID-19 can be ... the ‘doctrine of frustration’ may be able to help. Fundamental breach of contract is a controversial concept within the common law of contract.The doctrine was, in particular, nurtured by Lord Denning MR, but it did not find favour with the House of Lords.. The event must significantly alter the obligations under the contract and cannot be the fault of either party. If you require any advice or further information on the matters dealt with in this publication please contact the lawyer at Farry and Co who normally advises you, or alternatively contact: The information contained in this publication is intended as a guide only. The coronavirus and the doctrine of frustration. If you are struggling to meet your contractual obligations due to the effects of COVID-19, and your contract doesn’t contain a force majeure clause, you may be able to rely on frustration to bring the contract to an end. Businesses who don’t, or whose force majeure clauses don’t cover this situation, might find that they have to rely on the contractual doctrine of frustration. Doctrine of frustration as enshrined in Section 56 of the Indian contract act 1872 deals with those cases where the performance of contract has been frustrated and the performance of it has become impossible to perform due to any unavoidable reason or condition. The common law doctrine of frustration applies when an unforeseen event arises, by no fault of a contracting party, which: makes it impossible for parties to perform their obligations under the contract; or; makes performance of the contract radically different from what the parties originally intended. Abbreviations. If you have any questions, or you need any help with your contracts, contact James MacGillivray or Phil Taylor. It is argued that the circumstances of landlords and tenants met the test for the doctrine of frustration. Boarding House or residential tenancy?– make sure you are protected. [1] Some businesses may find themselves unable to meet their contractual obligations, whether because of shortages of labour or materials, movement restrictions, or downturns in their business. Section 56 of the Indian Contract Act: As with most laws in India, the contract act is influenced by English laws/doctrines(The act was passed when India was under colonial rule). Next post: Business Owners – the importance of terms and conditions of trade, We have an opportunity available in our Auckland office for an experienced, registered legal executive or a 3+ PQE…. Remember that this is a complex area and it is important for you to obtain legal advice before seeking to rely on frustration. Previous post: Boarding House or residential tenancy?– make sure you are protected. It releases the parties from their contract where, by no fault of either party, an intervening event makes performance impossible or radically different than what the parties agreed. In order to satisfy the doctrine of frustration an event needs to occur that is not only unforeseen but an event which significantly alters the relationship between the contracting parties. V The Doctrine of Frustration – its Limitations 42 A Provision in Contract 43 B Delay 44 . The “doctrine of frustration‟ is a common law concept that allows a contract to be discharged when a certain event or event (s) occur, which is beyond the control of the parties. The FCA confers three major benefits on parties that are supplementary to the doctrine, it: It is therefore crucial that you seek legal advice not only when problems arise but before actually entering into a contract. The event needs to make performance of the contract impossible. In law the doctrine of frustration refers to a situation where what has been agreed to, what a party has contracted to do, can no longer be done. Some examples where the doctrine of frustration has been successfully applied are set out below; This is by no means an exhaustive list and therefore you should seek legal advice on whether or not you can argue the doctrine, at the earliest opportunity. Therefore, the doctrine could have applied to leases to enable the parties to terminate them. The doctrine of frustration is applied within very narrow limits. In New Zealand the doctrine of frustration is supported by the FCA. What if my lease does not have any provision that deals with this situation? Sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest insight and news from Tompkins Wake, © 2020 Tompkins Wake. Frustration occurs where neither party has been the ‘defaulting party’ regarding their contractual obligations, but it has become incapable of performing the contract due to circumstances that are outside of the parties’ … Built by NetValue, Charities, Not for Profit & Social Enterprise, International Trade & Overseas Investment, Relationship Property, Trust Disputes & Family Law, Civil Disputes Senior Solicitor/Associate. Many legal minds making NZ LAW work We are an association of independent legal practices, proactively sharing ideas and expertise for the benefit of our clients. A contract can be frustrated if it becomes illegal for one party to perform its obligation, for example, contracting to hold a large event when large gatherings of people are banned. Having reviewed many leases and analysed the provisions, it The doctrine of frustration had thus expanded so much that, instead of interpreting the contract itself, it sought to base the excuse on extracontractual elements and considerations. The doctrine of frustration was first recognised in a very old English case of Taylor v Caldwell. The doctrine of frustration also applies to cases concerning the cancellation of an expected event. The normal position in law is that the courts uphold contracts and if one party fails to honour their side of a contract, then the other party is entitled to damages for the loss caused by the breach. repealed; Frustrated Contracts Act 1944: repealed, on 1 September 2017, by section 345(1)(f) of the Contract and Commercial Law Act 2017 (2017 No 5). If you are struggling to meet your contractual obligations due to the effects of COVID-19, and your contract doesn’t contain a force majeure clause, you may be able to rely on frustration to bring the contract to an end. It does not constitute legal advice and should not be relied upon as such. Farry and Co are experts in this area and can assist in all aspects of contract law. On February 18, we published an article on force majeure in the context of COVID-19.In this second article, we will compare force majeure with the common law doctrine of frustration, another option for excusing non-performance of contractual obligations.. Frustration is difficult to prove, but where an extreme event like the current coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak occurs, you’re more likely to see counterparties seeking to rely on it to extricate themselves from difficult contractual arrangements. If the contract does not contain a force majeure clause, the common law doctrine of frustration may apply. Further reading 7. The doctrine accordingly became a question of law for the courts to determine, as opposed to one of fact. [35] Act of God. Another is the doctrine of frustration, which may be relevant if the contract contains no force majeure clause covering coronavirus COVID-19 issues. Parties may look to delay, or to avoid altogether, performance of their obligations. The Frustrated Contracts Act 1944 (“the Act) also assists when dealing with the effect of the discharge of obligations on ‘parts’ of the contract which have already been fulfilled. The legal doctrine of frustration could assist with ending contracts due to Covid-19. If the effects were reasonably foreseeable at the time, the Court might conclude that the parties saw and accepted the risk of the event occurring. If a contract is frustrated, the contract ends, and the parties do not need to perform any future obligations under it. statute only intervene at the very end only during what happens during rights and payments made before it … A contract is frustrated if an unforseen event makes performance of the contract either impossible or performance is possible only in a radically different way. Where frustration occurs, the contract comes to an end and the parties are excused from further performance. The act of god is one of the important effect in the doctrine of frustration. All Rights Reserved. This may be because COVID-19 has prevented them from performing their contractual obligations, or because a part… This doctrine constitutes the Indian Contract Act,1872, … For customers and suppliers alike, delays or non-performance of obligations are an inevitable result of COVID-19. 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