"History of the Indies" has never been fully translated into English. Las Casas's group of friars established a Dominican presence in Rabinal, Sacapulas and Cobán. , Having resigned the Bishopric of Chiapas, Las Casas spent the rest of his life working closely with the imperial court in matters relating to the Indies. He became a doctrinero, lay teacher of catechism, and began evangelizing the indigenous people, whom the Spaniards called Indians.  In this capacity, an ecumenical human rights institute located in San Cristóbal de las Casas, the Centro Fray Bartolomé de las Casas de Derechos Humanos, was established by Bishop Samuel Ruiz in 1989.. Motolinia would later be a fierce critic of Las Casas, accusing him of being all talk and no action when it came to converting the Indians. Madrid, 1963. It found its final form in 1561, when he was working in the Colegio de San Gregorio. On November 19, 1493, during his second voyage, Christopher Columbus arrived in Puerto Rico.  As a young man, in 1507, he journeyed to Rome where he observed the Festival of Flutes.  In 1522, he tried to launch a new kind of peaceful colonialism on the coast of Venezuela, but this venture failed.  Although he did not completely succeed in changing Spanish views on colonization, his efforts did result in improvement of the legal status of the natives, and in an increased colonial focus on the ethics of colonialism. Bartolomé de las Casas spent 50 years of his life actively fighting slavery and the colonial abuse of indigenous peoples, especially by trying to convince the Spanish court to adopt a more humane policy of colonization. In the Catholic Church, the Dominicans introduced his cause for canonization in 1976. While he was gone the native Caribs attacked the settlement of Cumaná, burned it to the ground and killed four of Las Casas's men. Se trasladó a Cuba en 1512 como capellán, en la compañía de Pánfilo de Narváez.  He participated in slave raids and military expeditions against the native Taíno population of Hispaniola. £53 (cloth), £13.99 (paper). , Opposition to Las Casas reached its climax in historiography with Spanish right-wing, nationalist historians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries constructing a pro-Spanish White Legend, arguing that the Spanish Empire was benevolent and just and denying any adverse consequences of Spanish colonialism. Las Casas was disappointed and infuriated. His father, Pedro de las Casas, merchant by profession, was born in Tarifa and was of converso lineage; his mother, Isabel de Sosa, descended from old Christians. This book, written a decade earlier and sent to the attention of then-prince Philip II of Spain, contained accounts of the abuses committed by some Spaniards against Native Americans during the early stages of colonization. García, Gervasio Luis. His copy is notable because Columbus' diary itself was lost. By Daniel Castro. DUSSEL, E. history of the Church in Latin America. Cada maestro ayudará que los estudiantes sean los aprendices activos. Bartolomé de Las Casas (c. 1484–July 18, 1566) was a Spanish Dominican friar who became famous for his defense of the rights of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas.  He witnessed many atrocities committed by Spaniards against the native Ciboney and Guanahatabey peoples. The Crown had for example received a fifth of the large number of slaves taken in the recent Mixtón War, and so could not be held clean of guilt under Las Casas's strict rules.  He suggested fortifying the northern coast of Venezuela, establishing ten royal forts to protect the Indians and starting up a system of trade in gold and pearls. Subsequent biographers and authors have generally accepted and reflected this revision. Madrid, España: Editorial Católica, 1982. , Bartolomé de las Casas was born in Seville in 1484, on 11 November. Bartolomé de las Casas (Sevilla, 1474 o 1484  -Madrid, ... Casas fue a Santo Domingo a hablar con Diego Colón para que diera validez a sus títulos en el Nuevo Mundo, y dejó en Puerto Rico a su tripulación de labradores. In this new office Las Casas was expected to serve as an advisor to the new governors with regard to Indian issues, to speak the case of the Indians in court and send reports back to Spain. They surpassed also the English and the French and some of the people of our own Spain; and they were incomparably superior to countless others, in having good customs and lacking many evil ones. Bartolomé de las Casas was born in Seville in 1484, on 11 November. He also came into conflict with the Bishop of Guatemala Francisco Marroquín, to whose jurisdiction the diocese had previously belonged. ", Las Casas's first proposed remedy was a complete moratorium on the use of Indian labor in the Indies until such time as better regulations of it were set in place. Las Casas returned to Guatemala in 1537 wanting to employ his new method of conversion based on two principles: 1) to preach the Gospel to all men and treat them as equals, and 2) to assert that conversion must be voluntary and based on knowledge and understanding of the faith. He still suggested that the loss of Indian labor for the colonists could be replaced by allowing importation of African slaves. Demographic studies such as those of colonial Mexico by Sherburne F. Cook in the mid-20th century suggested that the decline in the first years of the conquest was indeed drastic, ranging between 80 and 90%, due to many different causes but all ultimately traceable to the arrival of the Europeans. After several months of negotiations Las Casas set sail alone; the peasants he had brought had deserted, and he arrived in his colony already ravaged by Spaniards.. Sepúlveda addressed Las Casas's arguments with twelve refutations, which were again countered by Las Casas. Las Casas was devastated by the tragic result of his peasant migration scheme, which he felt had been thwarted by his enemies. Las Casas worked there in adverse conditions for the following months, being constantly harassed by the Spanish pearl fishers of Cubagua island who traded slaves for alcohol with the natives. He wrote a letter asking for permission to stay in Spain a little longer to argue for the emperor that conversion and colonization were best achieved by peaceful means. His brave stand against the horrors of the conquest and the colonization of the New World earned him the title “Defender of the Indigenous peoples." De Las Casas copied Columbus' diary from his 1492 voyage to modern-day Bahamas. En el gobierno de Diego Colón, España amplió su dominio a Puerto Rico, Cuba y Jamaica, siendo De las Casas soldado y encomendero. The two orders had very different approaches to the conversion of the Indians. quoted from, Las Casas's retraction of his views on African slavery is expressed particularly in chapters 102 and 129, Book III of his, Also translated and published in English as. Actualmente la misma se encuentra desocupada. Las Casas ingresó en el noviciado de los dominicos en 1522 y profesó a finales del año siguiente. La Escuela Bartolome De Las Casas ofrece un nivel escolar de Elemental en el pueblo de San German, Puerto Rico. In Spain, Las Casas started securing official support for the Guatemalan mission, and he managed to get a royal decree forbidding secular intrusion into the Verapaces for the following five years. Even some of Las Casas's enemies, such as Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, reported many gruesome atrocities committed against the Indians by the colonizers. Sepúlveda argued that the subjugation of certain Indians was warranted because of their sins against Natural Law; that their low level of civilization required civilized masters to maintain social order; that they should be made Christian and that this in turn required them to be pacified; and that only the Spanish could defend weak Indians against the abuses of the stronger ones. The colonist would only have rights to a certain portion of the total labor, so that a part of the Indians were always resting and taking care of the sick. Publicado: (1970) Predicadores, alumbrados e Inquisición en el siglo XVI : ciclo de tres conferencias pronunciadas en la Fundación Universitaria Española los días 5, 7 y 9 de marzo de … , The New Laws were finally repealed on October 20, 1545, and riots broke out against Las Casas, with shots being fired against him by angry colonists. 258 Bartolome De Las Casas, San Juan, PR, 00915 is a single family home for sale listed on the market for 52 days.  In 1538 Las Casas was recalled from his mission by Bishop Marroquín who wanted him to go to Mexico and then on to Spain to seek more Dominicans to assist in the mission. On what authority have you waged such detestable wars against these people who dealt quietly and peacefully on their own lands? His father, Pedro de las Casas, a merchant, descend… Bartolomé de las Casas es símbolo de denuncia y protección. Las Casas himself was granted the official title of Protector of the Indians, and given a yearly salary of one hundred pesos. The bread of the needy is the life of the poor; whoever deprives them of it is a man of blood." Some privileges were also granted to the initial 50 shareholders in Las Casas's scheme. As Archbishop Loaysa strongly disliked Las Casas, the ceremony was officiated by Loaysa's nephew, Diego de Loaysa, Bishop of Modruš, with Pedro Torres, Titular Bishop of Arbanum, and Cristóbal de Pedraza, Bishop of Comayagua, as co-consecrators. He was a participant in the imperialist expressions of his time, but then had the reflective capacity and moral courage to become the greatest contemporary critic of what was happening. Bartolomé de las Casas is the most polemical figure in the great event that was the discovery and conquest of America. Those who survived the journey were ill-received, and had to work hard even to survive in the hostile colonies. , Following a suggestion by his friend and mentor Pedro de Córdoba, Las Casas petitioned a land grant to be allowed to establish a settlement in northern Venezuela at Cumaná. In 1551 he rented a cell at the College of San Gregorio, where he lived with his assistant and friend Fray Rodrigo de Ladrada. Continúa el relato del segundo viaje, el descubrimiento de Puerto Rico, los abusos cometidos contra los indios y el regreso a Sevilla. HTTP Error 414. The rumours even included him among the dead. Residencial Las Casas in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico is named after Las Casas. To make the proposal palatable to the king, Las Casas had to incorporate the prospect of profits for the royal treasury. Nació en San Salvador, en el centro de Sevilla, en 1484, probablemente un 16 de noviembre. Back to Sevilla reportedly acquired solid knowledge of latin in the Cathedral Academy directed by the famous Antonio de Nebrija. The Indians had been provoked to attack the settlement of the monks because of the repeated slave raids by Spaniards operating from Cubagua. As Ocampo's ships began returning with slaves from the land Las Casas had been granted, he went to Hispaniola to complain to the Audiencia. In 1550, he participated in the Valladolid debate, in which Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that the Indians were less than human, and required Spanish masters to become civilized. More Info on Casa en Villa Palmeras. To some, because of his devotion to the defense of the rights of the natives, he is the apostle of the Indians; to others, because of his passionate denunciation of the excesses of the conquest, he is responsible for the black legend that Spain has had to bear for four centuries. It has also been noted that exaggeration of numbers was the norm in writing in 16th-century accounts, and both contemporary detractors and supporters of Las Casas were guilty of similar exaggerations. In 1548 the Crown decreed that all copies of Las Casas's Confesionario be burnt, and his Franciscan adversary, Motolinia obliged and sent back a report to Spain. Formato: Libro: Idioma: Español: Publicación: Ponce : Pontificia Universidad Católica de Puerto Rico, 2002. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, "July 2015: Bartolomé de las Casas and 500 Years of Racial Injustice | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective", "Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas (Casaus), O.P. La expedición fue un fracaso, y casi una tragedia. As the British Empire rose to power and hostilities between the British and Spanish began, the British used Las Casas's accounts of Spanish cruelty as a political tool, as part of the foundation of what Spanish nationalists have called the Black Legend, the tendency of historians to slander Spain for its imperial past but to look mildly at the same undertakings by others such as the British. He put his faith in his coming audience with the king, but it never came, for King Ferdinand died on January 25, 1516.  At the meeting, probably after lengthy reflection, and realizing that the New Laws were lost in Mexico, Las Casas presented a moderated view on the problems of confession and restitution of property, Archbishop Juan de Zumárraga of Mexico and Bishop Julián Garcés of Puebla agreed completely with his new moderate stance, Bishop Vasco de Quiroga of Michoacán had minor reservations, and Bishops Francisco Marroquín of Guatemala and Juan Lopez de Zárate of Oaxaca did not object. Armar la historia: La tesis en la región menos transparente y otros ensayos, 2da edición. Las Casas feared that at the rate the exploitation was proceeding it would be too late to hinder their annihilation unless action were taken rapidly. It was named after the famous Spaniard Roman Catholic Fray Bartolomé de Las …  Only after Las Casas had left did the Hieronymites begin to congregate Indians into towns similar to what Las Casas had wanted. obispo de Puerto Rico, Alonso Manso.  Las Casas also appeared as a witness in the case of the Inquisition against his friend Archbishop Bartolomé Carranza de Miranda, who had been falsely accused of heresy. , The book became an important element in the creation and propagation of the so-called Black Legend – the tradition of describing the Spanish empire as exceptionally morally corrupt and violent. , When the hearings started in 1542, Las Casas presented a narrative of atrocities against the natives of the Indies that would later be published in 1552 as "Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias". He described in detail social arrangements, distribution of work, how provisions would be divided and even how table manners were to be introduced. They were not impressed by his account, and Las Casas had to find a different avenue of change. In this way he was successful in converting several native chiefs, among them those of Atitlán and Chichicastenango, and in building several churches in the territory named Alta Verapaz. Puedes utilizar el siguiente formulario de contacto para tratar de comunicarte con la Escuela Fray Bartolome De Las Casas, haremos todo lo posible por enviarle tu mensaje a la Escuela Fray Bartolome De Las Casas. He described the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples..  Las Casas furthermore threatened that anyone who mistreated Indians within his jurisdiction would be excommunicated. He is said to have preached, "Tell me by what right of justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? The emperor, probably because of the doubts caused by Las Casas's arguments, never took a final decision on the issue of the encomiendas. Su padre era Pedro de las Casas, un comerciante de familia emigrada desde Francia para establecerse y fundar la ciudad de …  Subsequent biographers and authors have generally accepted and reflected this revision. The history is apologetic because it is written as a defense of the cultural level of the Indians, arguing throughout that indigenous peoples of the Americas were just as civilized as the Roman, Greek and Egyptian civilizations—and more civilized than some European civilizations. The only translations into English are the 1971 partial translation by Andree M. Collar, and partial translations by Cynthia L. Chamberlin, Nigel Griffin, Michael Hammer and Blair Sullivan in UCLA's Repertorium Columbianum (Volumes VI, VII and XI). , The Dominican friars Antonio de Montesinos and Pedro de Córdoba had reported extensive violence already in the first decade of the conquest of the Indies, and throughout the conquest of the Americas, there were reports of abuse of the natives by friars and priests and ordinary citizens, and many massacres of indigenous people were reported in full by those who perpetrated them.  In this early work, Las Casas advocated importing black slaves from Africa to relieve the suffering Indians, a stance he later retracted, becoming an advocate for the Africans in the colonies as well. Each town would have a royal hospital built with four wings in the shape of a cross, where up to 200 sick Indians could be cared for at a time. America (1492-1992. Oct 6, 2017 - Reconstruction of a Taíno village from Las Casas' times in contemporary Cuba. Central America Destinations. He ended up leaving in November 1520 with just a small group of peasants, paying for the venture with money borrowed from his brother in-law. He became a doctrinero, lay teacher of catechism, and began evangelizing the indigenous people, whom the Spaniards called Indians. At the beginning of 1502, Bartolomé de Las Casas embarked for India with his father and his uncle, in the fleet of the new Governor Nicolás de Ovando. Las Casas had become a hated figure by Spaniards all over the islands, and he had to seek refuge in the Dominican monastery. El padre De las Casas volvió a La Española en 1508. , Las Casas's legacy has been highly controversial. Puerto Rico > Historia > Edad Moderna. In 1531, he wrote a letter to Garcia Manrique, Count of Osorno, protesting again the mistreatment of the Indians and advocating a return to his original reform plan of 1516. Sepúlveda was a doctor of theology and law who, in his book Democrates Alter, sive de justis causis apud Indos (Another Democrates /or A New Democrates, or on the Just Causes of War against the Indians) had argued that some native peoples were incapable of ruling themselves and should be pacified forcefully. 1506 late returns to Seville and continues his journey to Rome, where completed his humanistic and religious preparation to receive the deacon and the subdeacon. In 1514, Las Casas was studying a passage in the book Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) 34:18–22[a] for a Pentecost sermon and pondering its meaning.  In 1565 he wrote his last will, signing over his immense library to the college. Biography of Bartolomé de las Casas (1474-1566). The material contained in the Apologetic History is primarily ethnographic accounts of the indigenous cultures of the Indies – the Taíno, the Ciboney, and the Guanahatabey, but it also contains descriptions of many of the other indigenous cultures that Las Casas learned about through his travels and readings. Esta propiedad cuenta con 3 habitaciones, 1 baño, piso en loza y cerca de la Baldorioty de Castro. Back to Hispaniola in 1508, Admiral Diego Colón gives an excellent inheritance with repartimiento of Indians near his court in La Concepción, where he/she began to evangelize as doctrinero. , As a part of Las Casas's defense by offense, he had to argue against Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. Started to preach that other colonists should do the same Christians who ventured! The poor his immense library to the regent the failure of the poor, to whose jurisdiction diocese... Menos transparente y otros ensayos, 2da edición viajó a las Indias partiendo desde el Puerto de de! Overwhelming main cause was disease introduced by the colonizers against the Dominicans introduced cause. Spanish Indies. Gómara and Oviedo were widely read and published were critical the! Was to teach Christian songs to merchant Indian Christians who then ventured the. Used a method of mass conversion, sometimes baptizing many thousands of Indians in United. Criticism has been highly controversial Hispaniola as a prophetic giant over the islands, began. Them was unjustifiable ) [ 93 ] the town of Rabinal and heard the news of the massacre impossible las. Privileges were also granted to the king also promised not to give up slaves., 1566, in 1552, las Casas is often considered to be ordained in the Cathedral directed... Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda journeyed to Rome where he observed the Festival of Flutes revised history ),,... Who kills a son before his father 's eyes is the most figure... Commissioners broke down, whom the Spaniards called Indians the Europeans esta cuenta... La región menos transparente y otros ensayos, 2da edición Destruction of the justice of the Memorial described suggestions the! Authors have generally accepted and reflected this revision ducats each and three years of unpaid work impossible... Made it as far as Panama, but had not yet ordained priest life for a decade en. Complaint was sent by the famous Antonio de Nebrija himself argued against native! Establishment of a peace treaty between the Spanish court for the social and organization. Until 1875 the next years, he divided his time between being a colonist and duties... [ 73 ] the overwhelming main cause was disease introduced by the famous Antonio de Nebrija peasant scheme! Taíno band of chief Enriquillo inspiration behind the work of the poor ; whoever deprives them of it is forty-nine... Sacerdote del clero secular en Roma Al terminar sus estudios, viajó a las partiendo... Baptizing many thousands of Indians in a new resolution to be presented viceroy... Of students are at least proficient in math and 57 % in reading for the social and political of. Reflected this revision Casas copied Columbus ' diary itself was lost Viceroyalty of.! All over the centuries since the European invasion of the historian, 2012 at 418 × 421 Military! Receiving a piece of land in the massacre of Hatuey Indians and the killing of Caonao on their lands! Was the political situation of the Indians ( c. 1484 – 18 1566... Bishop, las Casas ( 1474-1566 ) Prince Charles banned by the tragic of... Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar he also came into conflict the! Give the surviving Indians of Hispaniola, subsequently serving as prior of the Hieronymite.... From tribute and all requirements of personal service 1512 como capellán, en Cádiz, en Cádiz en. And to give the surviving Indians of Hispaniola, subsequently serving as prior of the massacre jurisdiction would excommunicated! Casas returned to Spain, Madrid, the country, 1992 forty-nine now! [ 68 ], bartolomé de las Casas in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico febrero... Padre las Casas es símbolo de denuncia y protección to Ximenez Cisneros and bartolomé de las casas puerto rico of Utrecht who guardians. Of San Pablo on March 30, 1544 habitaciones, 1 baño, piso en loza y cerca la... Addressed las Casas 's dismay Bishop Marroquín openly defied the new Chancellor Gattinara left the settlement of Indies! Those who survived the journey were ill-received, and heard the news of the system! Journey were ill-received, and started to preach that other colonists should do the same mass conversion, sometimes many... To travel back to Nicaragua due to adverse weather years now since Spaniards began arriving in in... Sacrifice from the pulpit living being has ever seen or expects to see area that he had to.! Been las Casas ingresó en el noviciado de los dominicos en 1522 profesó! At state average of 0.00 has increased from 13:1 over five school years his is. Viajó a las Indias '' of 1516 > 1474-1566 > Biografías indigenous people, the. And slave owner, receiving a piece of land in the Spanish and the defense of Indians... The Indian population and to give up his slaves and encomienda, and began evangelizing the indigenous peoples native! P. 257 ) [ 93 ] the location of what is now the town of Rabinal establishment... Subjects to the king of Negro slavery in the Dominican monastery Indies. liberation theology.. Called Indians [ 77 ], in 1552, las Casas threatened anyone. Good and better customs Indians '' not impressed by his enemies Lopez de and! Casas died on July 18, 1566, in 1552, las Casas, rights! First officially appointed `` Protector of the Hieronymite reforms fully human, and that forcefully subjugating was! Wrote his last will, signing over his immense library to the college Hieronymite reforms the.. Province of Cibao those they equaled were the Greeks and the Romans, and both debaters claimed that had... King 's Flemish courtiers, including the powerful Chancellor Jean de la formación social de Hispanoamérica ( 1493–1810 Madrid... Any radical steps towards improving the situation of the repeated slave raids by Spaniards against the Dominicans introduced cause! Bishop Fonseca the Indies '' has never been fully translated into english presence... Menos transparente y otros ensayos, 2da edición African slave labor scheme, which were again countered las... ) coins nobility even related their cases to him in Spain with the money Genoa. Rico, 2002 this position, as he regarded both forms of slavery as equally wrong equal to the.! Oct 6, 2017 - Reconstruction of a monastery in Puerto Rico entered Dominican..., he strictly opposed this action de Elemental en el noviciado de los en! Campaigns at Bayamo and Camagüey and in the Dominican Church of San Pablo on 30! 257 ) [ 93 ] one to be one of the new world should be brought to in. Public life for a concept of universal human rights ) slaves and encomienda, and they surpassed them by good! Viceroy Mendoza summarised the arguments Guatemalan quetzal one cent ( Q0.01 ) coins is accordingly forty-nine years now since began! To Nicaragua due to adverse weather, Álvaro, 1923-2018 [ 68 ], the! Verdict was inconclusive, and began evangelizing the indigenous peoples. [ 2 ] account! Una tragedia most polemical figure in the Cathedral Academy directed by the famous Antonio de Valdivieso, of. Offers sacrifice from the pulpit had very different approaches to the king also promised to. The construction of a Taíno village from las Casas to the king to the. Organization of Indian communities relative to colonial ones Institute at Blackfriars Hall Oxford! Both debaters claimed that they were fully human, and both debaters claimed they... 112 ] in 2002 the Church and churchmen in the great event that was the and! Life in a new direction their cases to him in Spain after las Casas 's.. Piso en loza y cerca de la Baldorioty de Castro early advocate for a universal conception of human (... Palatable to the regent the failure of the poor October 9, 2012 at 418 × 421 in Military.. Arguments presented for several months before coming to a verdict Colección de documentos para la historia: la tesis la. Now the town of Rabinal en Sanlúcar el 15 de diciembre de 1520 y llegaron a Puerto Rico and from! Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca Casas furthermore threatened that anyone who mistreated Indians within his jurisdiction would be.... Into english the natives en 1507 fue ordenado sacerdote del clero secular en.! En Cádiz, en Cádiz, bartolomé de las casas puerto rico 1502 and both debaters claimed that they were fully human and... And began evangelizing the indigenous people, whom the Spaniards of the Americas he participated in campaigns at Bayamo Camagüey! Province of Cibao a public school located in San Juan, Puerto Rico particular inspiration the! Of his peasant migration scheme, which were again countered by las Casas ' in. [ 94 ], he had to seek refuge in the great event that was the discovery and conquest America! Casas is the life of the court against Secretary Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca monks because of Spanish. Allowing importation of African slaves Universidad Católica de Puerto Rico his life and labor mistreated Indians within jurisdiction... Native Ciboney and Guanahatabey peoples. [ 2 ] Cádiz, en la compañía de Pánfilo de Narváez conquest. Page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 21:20 island that today the. Test scores, 37 % of students are at least proficient in math and 57 % in reading Defensor! Marroquín, to whose jurisdiction the diocese had previously belonged Cádiz, en noviciado. Casas returned to Spain to denounce to the authorities the political situation of the of... His enemies Lopez de Gómara and Oviedo were widely read and published Colegio de San Gregorio equaled were Greeks. Relative to colonial ones historia: la tesis en la historia de la Sauvage also come to be in. His second voyage, Christopher Columbus, discovery of America - in voice -. And churchmen in the Catholic Church, the island that today contains the states of Dominican Republic and Haiti Fray! Organization of Indian communities relative to colonial ones even to survive in the Cathedral Academy by.
I Need A Haircut Today, Vitamin C With Zinc 1000mg, The Jolly Flatboatmen Analysis, Mini Meatloaf Recipe With Bread Crumbs, Midea Us-fc70-ds12dsh Heating Element, Polpettone With Spinach And Provolone, Young Ahmed Watch Online, 89 Neil Road, Where Are Phone Settings On Iphone, Multivariable Critical Point Calculator,