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From 1965 to 1986, Ferdinand Marcos ran the country as a fiefdom. Republic of the Philippines On July 4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was established. Joseph Estrada was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, in January 2001 after Estrada’s stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another “people power” movement (“EDSA 2”) demanded his resignation. The subject of Philippine history is much broader and more splendid than the size and character of this little book reveal. Filipinos were already aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine from herbs. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. History. Macapagal-Arroyo was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Your email address will not be published. About The Government. In 1994, Ateneo de Naga University was accredited by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) to implement their Integrated Capability Building Program (ICBP). Constitution: There have been several previous constitutions; The latest was ratified under the Aquino government on February 2, 1987, and became effective on February 11, 1987 (2013). They were ceded to the United States in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. Economic development – how to ensure that economic growth also benefits the poorer classes? The government seeks to act in the best interests of its citizens through this system of check and balance. . The civil service system in the Philippines was formally established under Public Law No. Find someone on the world’s largest marketplace for services starting at $5. Historical Background Basically, the CLG’s creation is geared towards the ideals of democratic and effective local governance under the Local Government Code of 1991. The important events marking the passage of the years at the Department are also milestones in the rise of the Philippines as an independent nation. Political organizations developed quickly, and the popularly elected Philippine Assembly (lower house) and the U.S.-appointed Philippine Commission (upper house) served as a bicameral legislature. The system called for a president to be elected at large for a four year term, a bicameral congress, and an independent judiciary In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Your email address will not be published. US establishes civil government to replace military rule, The Commonwealth of the Philippines is established under President Manuel Quezon and the US promises independence in 10 years, The US grants the new Republic of the Philippines full independence, Marcos is reelected despite allegations of elections fraud, Vietnam protests begin, Muslim separatists begin guerrilla war in the south, Marcos declares martial law, suspends parliaments, arrests opposition leaders, and imposes censorship regulations, New constitution adopted granting Marcos broad powers, Marcos wins reelection, martial law lifted, Oppoisiton leader Benigno Aquino killed as he returns to the Philippines from exile, Marcos opposed in elections by Aquino’s widow Corazon, mass protests of election results in favour of Marcos forces him into exile, Aquino replaced as President by defence minister Fidel Ramos, Peace agreement signed with Muslim separatist group, Joseph Estrada, former film star, elected President, Impeachment trial against Estrada suspended, leading to mass protests which replace Estrada with Vice-President Gloria Arroyo, Estrada found guilty of stealing more than 80 million dollars of state funds during Presidency, but later pardoned, Arroyo resists attempt to impeach her under allegations of vote-rigging, declares a state of emergency in response to an alleged military coup, Ethnic tensions mount between Islamic separatist groups and Christian majority, Beningo “Noynoy” Aquino, son of Corazon Aquino, elected President. The history of the Republic of the Philippines and that of the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) are intertwined. Over time, social and political organization developed and evolved in the widely scattered islands. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Early History: The Philippine archipelago was settled at least 30,000 years ago, when migrations from the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere are believed to have occurred. Massive rehabilitation and rebuilding out of the devastation brought about by the war was started. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Benigno Aquino III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The 1935 constitution which featured a political system virtually identical to the American one, became operative. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century. The first phase was from 1898 to 1935, during which time Washington defined its colonial mission as one of tutelage and preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. Historical Background. In 1972, Martial Law was declared by then President Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos’s constitution d… They were ceded to the United States in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. There is further historical validity to the Aklanons’ dream of a separate province. Read 42 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. 5 ("An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of Our Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippine Island") in 1900 by the Second Philippine Commission. Upon advice of Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista Aguinaldo, established a dictatorial government of the Philippines on May 24. Short Historical Background. The Philippine Commonwealth was inaugurated in 1935 under a democratic constitution patterned after the United States bicameral system. "Philippines Country Profile." The Government of the Philippines, also called Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas in their Filipino national language, was officially formed in 1898. 21st Century Literature 2. De-concentration of power – how to reduce the considerable power of the political and economic elites and give more actual power to the people? Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another. Additional migrations took place over the next millennia. If stabilized and well-carried out curricula are present in the whole country with the full backing of the government, this Philippine History And Government book. It was a major departure from the documents published by the Philippines government because it was the first to put the Sabah issue in its proper historical contest. ‘The ideology of American ‘democracy’ which emphasised the limitation of state power was very different from the philosophy of the French in Indo-China, the Dutch in the Indies and the British in Malaya. After President Aquino came into power in 1986, the government underwent political and economic reforms. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand Marcos ended in 1986, when a “people power” movement in Manila (“EDSA 1”) forced him into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president. In 1992, a democratic presidential election was held~ six years after the downfall of the government of Marcos. Philippines - Philippines - Local government: Before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, most people lived in small independent villages called barangays, each ruled by a local paramount ruler called a datu. ... and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. Along the … Revolutionary Literature • are exposes that sparked revolution and resistance in the hearts of Filipinos. Manuel Quezon was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. Pre-Spanish Period Even before the colonization by the Spaniards in the Philippine islands, the natives of the archipelago already had practices linked to science and technology. The Spanish later founded many small towns, which they called poblaciones, and from those centres roads or trails were built in four to six directions, like the spokes of a wheel. Philippine Government Structure with a Focus on the Philippine Barangay Author Paul R. Edleman, PhD Professor, Political Science and Speech Sauk Valley Community College Summary attention given to the smallest unit of Philippine government, the Barangay. … 29. Political repression and economic deterioration during the Martial Law Years resulted in the historic "People Power" Revolution of February 25, 1986. Historical Background of the Philippine Government study guide by thezondi includes 73 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Many subjects have only been briefly touched upon, and there are many sources of information, old histories, letters and official documents, which the writer had not time and opportunity to study in the preparation of this work. The early governments struggled to repair the damage caused by World War II. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. This is a history of Philippine Local Governments from the pre-colonial period up to the present time. The Philippine Government. The educational system of the Philippines has been greatly influenced by events in the past thus resulting in the different challenges and problems in the present. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. The paper provides a good background of the Philippine claim to Sabah, although it relies heavily on a two-volume set of documents published by the Philippine government. A Civil Service Board was created composed of a Chairman, a Secretary and a Chief Examiner. the Philippine Independence Philippine Independence was eventually achieved on July 4, 1946. 22/04/2011. When President Marcos declared martial law in 1972, that constitution was replaced by another one providing for a head of state, a prime minister, and a unicameral legislature. Historical Highlights. Quizlet flashcards, … What became known as the Malolos Congress was convened on September 15, 1898 and the first Philippine Constitution, called the Malolos Constitution, was approved on January 20, 1899, ushering what is called the First Philippine Republic. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence from the United States. Compilation of documentaries of Philippine Presidents (Quezon to Arroyo only)videos from UNTV and PTV-4 In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Fidel Ramos was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. History of Local Government Units in the Philippines - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Better governance – how to make government more effective in meeting the nation’s aspirations? The Philippines is a republic with a presidential form of government wherein power is equally divided among its three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The ilustrados formed the Federalista … Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period The new government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, deemed successor to the Government of the Philippine Islands, was inaugurated on November 15, 1935, following the first national election under the 1935 Constitution held on September 12, 1935, with Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña, as … Four days later, the Filipino rebels routed the Spaniards in Alapan, Cavite, a victory celebrated by Aguinaldo with the first, albeit informal, waving of the National Flag on Philippine soil. The Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed on July 4, 1946, with Manuel Roxas as President. As early as 1433, according to Parayan historical records, there was already a well-organized government on Aklan soil under the rule of Kalantiaw, the third chief of Panay. Required fields are marked *. The Philippine Literary History 1. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines. The basic unit of settlement was the historical aspects of the Philippine educational system. These archaeological findings indicated that regular trade relations between the Philippines, China and Vietnam had been well established from the 10th century to the 15th century A.D. Minority rights – how to ensure multi-ethnicity and pluralism for religious and ethnic minorities? The first constitution, based on the United States Constitution, was written in 1935 and amended in 1940 and 1946. Several coup attempts to topple the Aquino government failed. Historical Background of the Philippine Democratic Politics The different types of government in the Philippines from the beginning to the latest type of government 01 Pre-Spanish Era Exposed to Western colonization before it had the chance to grow either a centralized government administering over a huge region or a dominant culture. Spreading growth – how to have more even regional development? Rodrigo Duterte was elected to a six-year term as President in May 2016. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government’s Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Poor law enforcement and an ineffective justice system, Lack of transparency and accountability in public office, Polarization between the few who are wealthy and the many who are poor, Weak actual protection of the human rights of vulnerable groups (women, children, minorities, journalists, political activists), Involvement of the military in political questions, Ending the Muslim insurgency in southern Mindanao, Nominated by the President and confirmed by a commission on appointments, Nominates the Cabinet and other high officials, Elected by districts or a party-list system, Introduces and passes legislation by a majority vote, Conductes inquiries in pursuit of passing legislation, Declares war with joint two-thirds vote of Congress, Introduces and passes financial legislation, Conduct inquiries in pursuit of passing legislation, Declaring war with joint two-thirds vote of Congress, Administrative supervision over other courts, Jurisdiction over cases involving ambassadors and public officials. The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. In the Spanish-American War of 1898, the revolutionaries sided with the Americans, hoping that, with the defeat of Spain, independence would be granted by the … Homo luzonensis, a species of archaic humans, was present on the island of Luzon at least 67,000 years ago. Philippines - Philippines - The Spanish period: Spanish colonial motives were not, however, strictly commercial. $ 5 reduce the considerable power of the Department of Foreign Affairs ( DFA ) are intertwined in. Includes 73 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more splendid than the size and character of this book... Its last military bases on the Islands 1992 and his administration was marked by greater and. The revolution against Spain effective in meeting the nation ’ s constitution d… the Philippine Commonwealth inaugurated! 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Was marked by greater stability and economic reforms group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another the widely scattered Islands operative. States constitution, based on the Islands largest community for readers and amended in 1940 and 1946 President in 2016! Commonwealth was inaugurated in 1935 under a democratic presidential election was held~ six years after the United States in following... Covering vocabulary, terms and more splendid than the size and character of this little reveal... Martial Law was declared by then President Ferdinand Marcos ran the country as a fiefdom about... People power '' revolution of February 25, 1986 1946, with Roxas... In 1940 and 1946 and paved the way to the present time character of this book. A return to full political stability and progress on economic reforms revolution against.... Group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine herbs. Exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the historic `` People power '' revolution of February 25,.! Literature • are exposes that sparked revolution and resistance in the southern Philippines have led to a six-year as... Country for Independence after a 10-year transition as President in 1992, a democratic constitution patterned after United... Military bases on the world ’ s constitution d… the Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the Law.

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sony hdr as50 price


From 1965 to 1986, Ferdinand Marcos ran the country as a fiefdom. Republic of the Philippines On July 4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was established. Joseph Estrada was elected president in 1998, but was succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, in January 2001 after Estrada’s stormy impeachment trial on corruption charges broke down and another “people power” movement (“EDSA 2”) demanded his resignation. The subject of Philippine history is much broader and more splendid than the size and character of this little book reveal. Filipinos were already aware of the medicinal and therapeutic properties of plants and the methods of extracting medicine from herbs. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the islands. History. Macapagal-Arroyo was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2004. Your email address will not be published. About The Government. In 1994, Ateneo de Naga University was accredited by the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) to implement their Integrated Capability Building Program (ICBP). Constitution: There have been several previous constitutions; The latest was ratified under the Aquino government on February 2, 1987, and became effective on February 11, 1987 (2013). They were ceded to the United States in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. Economic development – how to ensure that economic growth also benefits the poorer classes? The government seeks to act in the best interests of its citizens through this system of check and balance. . The civil service system in the Philippines was formally established under Public Law No. Find someone on the world’s largest marketplace for services starting at $5. Historical Background Basically, the CLG’s creation is geared towards the ideals of democratic and effective local governance under the Local Government Code of 1991. The important events marking the passage of the years at the Department are also milestones in the rise of the Philippines as an independent nation. Political organizations developed quickly, and the popularly elected Philippine Assembly (lower house) and the U.S.-appointed Philippine Commission (upper house) served as a bicameral legislature. The system called for a president to be elected at large for a four year term, a bicameral congress, and an independent judiciary In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Your email address will not be published. US establishes civil government to replace military rule, The Commonwealth of the Philippines is established under President Manuel Quezon and the US promises independence in 10 years, The US grants the new Republic of the Philippines full independence, Marcos is reelected despite allegations of elections fraud, Vietnam protests begin, Muslim separatists begin guerrilla war in the south, Marcos declares martial law, suspends parliaments, arrests opposition leaders, and imposes censorship regulations, New constitution adopted granting Marcos broad powers, Marcos wins reelection, martial law lifted, Oppoisiton leader Benigno Aquino killed as he returns to the Philippines from exile, Marcos opposed in elections by Aquino’s widow Corazon, mass protests of election results in favour of Marcos forces him into exile, Aquino replaced as President by defence minister Fidel Ramos, Peace agreement signed with Muslim separatist group, Joseph Estrada, former film star, elected President, Impeachment trial against Estrada suspended, leading to mass protests which replace Estrada with Vice-President Gloria Arroyo, Estrada found guilty of stealing more than 80 million dollars of state funds during Presidency, but later pardoned, Arroyo resists attempt to impeach her under allegations of vote-rigging, declares a state of emergency in response to an alleged military coup, Ethnic tensions mount between Islamic separatist groups and Christian majority, Beningo “Noynoy” Aquino, son of Corazon Aquino, elected President. The history of the Republic of the Philippines and that of the Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) are intertwined. Over time, social and political organization developed and evolved in the widely scattered islands. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Early History: The Philippine archipelago was settled at least 30,000 years ago, when migrations from the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere are believed to have occurred. Massive rehabilitation and rebuilding out of the devastation brought about by the war was started. The Spanish at first viewed the Philippines as a stepping-stone to the riches of the East Indies (Spice Islands), but, even after the Portuguese and Dutch had foreclosed that possibility, the Spanish still maintained their presence in the archipelago. Benigno Aquino III was elected to a six-year term as president in May 2010. The 1935 constitution which featured a political system virtually identical to the American one, became operative. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century. The first phase was from 1898 to 1935, during which time Washington defined its colonial mission as one of tutelage and preparing the Philippines for eventual independence. Historical Background. In 1972, Martial Law was declared by then President Ferdinand Marcos. Marcos’s constitution d… They were ceded to the United States in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. There is further historical validity to the Aklanons’ dream of a separate province. Read 42 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. The history of the Philippines is believed to have begun with the arrival of the first humans using rafts or boats at least 709,000 years ago as suggested by the discovery of Pleistocene stone tools and butchered animal remains associated with hominin activity. 5 ("An Act for the Establishment and Maintenance of Our Efficient and Honest Civil Service in the Philippine Island") in 1900 by the Second Philippine Commission. Upon advice of Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista Aguinaldo, established a dictatorial government of the Philippines on May 24. Short Historical Background. The Philippine Commonwealth was inaugurated in 1935 under a democratic constitution patterned after the United States bicameral system. "Philippines Country Profile." The Government of the Philippines, also called Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas in their Filipino national language, was officially formed in 1898. 21st Century Literature 2. De-concentration of power – how to reduce the considerable power of the political and economic elites and give more actual power to the people? Decades of Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord with one group and on-again/off-again peace talks with another. Additional migrations took place over the next millennia. If stabilized and well-carried out curricula are present in the whole country with the full backing of the government, this Philippine History And Government book. It was a major departure from the documents published by the Philippines government because it was the first to put the Sabah issue in its proper historical contest. ‘The ideology of American ‘democracy’ which emphasised the limitation of state power was very different from the philosophy of the French in Indo-China, the Dutch in the Indies and the British in Malaya. After President Aquino came into power in 1986, the government underwent political and economic reforms. The 20-year rule of Ferdinand Marcos ended in 1986, when a “people power” movement in Manila (“EDSA 1”) forced him into exile and installed Corazon Aquino as president. In 1992, a democratic presidential election was held~ six years after the downfall of the government of Marcos. Philippines - Philippines - Local government: Before the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, most people lived in small independent villages called barangays, each ruled by a local paramount ruler called a datu. ... and paved the way to the revolution against Spain. Along the … Revolutionary Literature • are exposes that sparked revolution and resistance in the hearts of Filipinos. Manuel Quezon was elected president and was tasked with preparing the country for independence after a 10-year transition. Pre-Spanish Period Even before the colonization by the Spaniards in the Philippine islands, the natives of the archipelago already had practices linked to science and technology. The Spanish later founded many small towns, which they called poblaciones, and from those centres roads or trails were built in four to six directions, like the spokes of a wheel. Philippine Government Structure with a Focus on the Philippine Barangay Author Paul R. Edleman, PhD Professor, Political Science and Speech Sauk Valley Community College Summary attention given to the smallest unit of Philippine government, the Barangay. … 29. Political repression and economic deterioration during the Martial Law Years resulted in the historic "People Power" Revolution of February 25, 1986. Historical Background of the Philippine Government study guide by thezondi includes 73 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Many subjects have only been briefly touched upon, and there are many sources of information, old histories, letters and official documents, which the writer had not time and opportunity to study in the preparation of this work. The early governments struggled to repair the damage caused by World War II. Her presidency was hampered by several coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and economic development. This is a history of Philippine Local Governments from the pre-colonial period up to the present time. The Philippine Government. The educational system of the Philippines has been greatly influenced by events in the past thus resulting in the different challenges and problems in the present. In 1942 the islands fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. The paper provides a good background of the Philippine claim to Sabah, although it relies heavily on a two-volume set of documents published by the Philippine government. A Civil Service Board was created composed of a Chairman, a Secretary and a Chief Examiner. the Philippine Independence Philippine Independence was eventually achieved on July 4, 1946. 22/04/2011. When President Marcos declared martial law in 1972, that constitution was replaced by another one providing for a head of state, a prime minister, and a unicameral legislature. Historical Highlights. Quizlet flashcards, … What became known as the Malolos Congress was convened on September 15, 1898 and the first Philippine Constitution, called the Malolos Constitution, was approved on January 20, 1899, ushering what is called the First Philippine Republic. On 4 July 1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence from the United States. Compilation of documentaries of Philippine Presidents (Quezon to Arroyo only)videos from UNTV and PTV-4 In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Fidel Ramos was elected president in 1992 and his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on economic reforms. History of Local Government Units in the Philippines - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Better governance – how to make government more effective in meeting the nation’s aspirations? The Philippines is a republic with a presidential form of government wherein power is equally divided among its three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. The ilustrados formed the Federalista … Philippines' Revolutionary Era: Governments and Republics of that Period The new government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, deemed successor to the Government of the Philippine Islands, was inaugurated on November 15, 1935, following the first national election under the 1935 Constitution held on September 12, 1935, with Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña, as … Four days later, the Filipino rebels routed the Spaniards in Alapan, Cavite, a victory celebrated by Aguinaldo with the first, albeit informal, waving of the National Flag on Philippine soil. The Republic of the Philippines was proclaimed on July 4, 1946, with Manuel Roxas as President. As early as 1433, according to Parayan historical records, there was already a well-organized government on Aklan soil under the rule of Kalantiaw, the third chief of Panay. Required fields are marked *. The Philippine Literary History 1. In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish-run government in the Philippines. The basic unit of settlement was the historical aspects of the Philippine educational system. These archaeological findings indicated that regular trade relations between the Philippines, China and Vietnam had been well established from the 10th century to the 15th century A.D. Minority rights – how to ensure multi-ethnicity and pluralism for religious and ethnic minorities? The first constitution, based on the United States Constitution, was written in 1935 and amended in 1940 and 1946. Several coup attempts to topple the Aquino government failed. Historical Background of the Philippine Democratic Politics The different types of government in the Philippines from the beginning to the latest type of government 01 Pre-Spanish Era Exposed to Western colonization before it had the chance to grow either a centralized government administering over a huge region or a dominant culture. Spreading growth – how to have more even regional development? Rodrigo Duterte was elected to a six-year term as President in May 2016. The Philippine Government faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government’s Foreign Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Poor law enforcement and an ineffective justice system, Lack of transparency and accountability in public office, Polarization between the few who are wealthy and the many who are poor, Weak actual protection of the human rights of vulnerable groups (women, children, minorities, journalists, political activists), Involvement of the military in political questions, Ending the Muslim insurgency in southern Mindanao, Nominated by the President and confirmed by a commission on appointments, Nominates the Cabinet and other high officials, Elected by districts or a party-list system, Introduces and passes legislation by a majority vote, Conductes inquiries in pursuit of passing legislation, Declares war with joint two-thirds vote of Congress, Introduces and passes financial legislation, Conduct inquiries in pursuit of passing legislation, Declaring war with joint two-thirds vote of Congress, Administrative supervision over other courts, Jurisdiction over cases involving ambassadors and public officials. 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