Big Data Analytics Challenges. Cuda, February 2, 2015. This article collected state-of-the-art on Big Data trajectory analytics. The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on the paper. Various solutions have been presented for the big data analytics which can be divided  into (1) Processing/Compute: Hadoop , Nvidia CUDA , or Twitter Storm , (2) Storage: Titan or HDFS, and (3) Analytics: MLPACK  or Mahout . Harvard Bus Rev. Implementing a big data analytics solution isn't always as straightforward as companies hope it will be. Laney D. 3D data management: controlling data volume, velocity, and variety, META Group, Tech. 1979;57(1):115–26. Djouadi A, Bouktache E. A fast algorithm for the nearest-neighbor classifier. In , Laurila et al. PrefixSpan mining sequential patterns efficiently by prefix projected pattern growth. The similar situation also exists in data clustering and classification studies because the design concept of earlier algorithms, such as mining the patterns on-the-fly , mining partial patterns at different stages , and reducing the number of times the whole dataset is scanned , are therefore presented to enhance the performance of these mining algorithms. Malewicz G, Austern MH, Bik AJ, Dehnert JC, Horn I, Leiser N, Czajkowski G. Pregel: A system for large-scale graph processing. In addition to the platform performance and data mining issues, the privacy issue for big data analytics was a promising research in recent years. In: Proceedings of the ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, 2013. pp 1434–1453. Evaluation typically plays the role of measuring the results. McQueen JB. Performance-oriented From the perspective of platform performance, Huai  pointed out that most of the traditional parallel processing models improve the performance of the system by using a new larger computer system to replace the old computer system, which is usually referred to as “scale up”, as shown in Fig. Unfortunately, not many studies attempted to make the data mining and soft computing algorithms work on Hadoop because several different backgrounds are needed to develop and design such algorithms. [Online]. [Online]. Survey of clustering algorithms. Some important open issues and further research directions will also be presented for the next step of big data analytics. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication, 2014. pp 25:1–25:7. Ester M, Kriegel HP, Sander J, Wimmer M, Xu X. One is to perform a classification function by itself while the other is to forward the input data to another learner to have them labeled. Chiang M-C, Tsai C-W, Yang C-S. A time-efficient pattern reduction algorithm for k-means clustering. Costa MA. Because these methods typically do not consider parallel computing environment, how to make them work on parallel computing environment will be a future research trend. Weiss SM, Indurkhya N. Predictive data mining: a practical guide. With the confusion matrix at hand, it is much easier to describe the meaning of precision (p), which is defined as, and the meaning of recall (r), which is defined as. 2001;42(1–2):31–60. Inform Commun Soc. Apache Storm, February 2, 2015. Several important concepts in the design of the big data analysis method will be given in the following sections. It aims to help to select and adopt the right combination of different Big Data technologies according to their technological needs and specific applications’ requirements. ACM SIGKDD Explor Newslett. Zhang T, Ramakrishnan R, Livny M. BIRCH: an efficient data clustering method for very large databases. How to make the input data from different sources the same format will be a possible solution to the variety problem of big data. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2014. pp 1–6. Although the problem  of analyzing large-scale and high-dimensional dataset has attracted many researchers from various disciplines in the last century, and several solutions [2, 109] have been presented presented in recent years, the characteristics of big data still brought up several new challenges for the data clustering issues. 1991;21(3):660–74. 2004;16(8):909–21. Understanding how the research in trajectory data are being conducted, what main techniques have been used, and how they can be embedded in an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) architecture can enhance the efficiency and development of decision-making systems that deal with trajectory data. In addition to making the sampling data represent the original data effectively , how many instances need to be selected for data mining method is another research issue  because it will affect the performance of the sampling method in most cases. To solve the data mining problems that attempt to classify the input data, two of the major goals are: (1) cohesion—the distance between each data and the centroid (mean) of its cluster should be as small as possible, and (2) coupling—the distance between data which belong to different clusters should be as large as possible. BIRCH  and sampling method were used in CloudVista to show that it is able to handle large-scale data, e.g., 25 million census records. A flocking based algorithm for document clustering analysis. From the analysis framework perspective, this table shows that big data framework, platform, and machine learning are the current research trends in big data analytics system. Harati A, Lopez S, Obeid I, Picone J, Jacobson M, Tobochnik S. The TUH EEG CORPUS: A big data resource for automated eeg interpretation. Ghazal et al. Article Ma C, Zhang HH, Wang X. In: Proceedings of the Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, 2013. pp 1435–1442.  presented a mobile agent based framework to solve these two problems, called the map reduce agent mobility (MRAM). Journal of King Saud University - Computer and Information Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2017.06.001. A simple comparison of these big data analysis technologies from different perspectives is described in Table 3, to give a brief introduction to the current studies and trends of data analysis technologies for the big data. But when we enter the age of big data, most of the current computer systems will not be able to handle the whole dataset all at once; thus, how to design a good data analytics framework or platformFootnote 3 and how to design analysis methods are both important things for the data analysis process. A training algorithm for optimal margin classifiers. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology, 2012. pp 101–104. However, once data mining algorithms are designed or modified for parallel computing, it is the information exchange between different data mining procedures that may incur bottlenecks. Big Data and Analytics Survey 2015. Even though computer systems today are much faster than those in the 1930s, the large scale data is a strain to analyze by the computers we have today. Rep. 2014. Han J, Pei J, Yin Y. Moreover, a promising research for NoSQL storage systems was also discussed in this study which can be divided into key-value, column, document, and row databases. The comparison between basic idea of traditional GA (TGA) and parallel genetic algorithm (PGA). The 2015 Big Data and Analytics study highlights data-driven initiatives and strategies driving data investments within IT organizations. Toward efficient and privacy-preserving computing in big data era. The open issues on computation, quality of end result, security, and privacy are then discussed to explain which open issues we may face. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-first International Conference on Machine Learning, 2004, pp 1–9. Another efficient big data analytics was presented in , called generalized linear aggregates distributed engine (GLADE). [Online]. 144–152. Big data analytics examines large amounts of data to uncover hidden patterns, correlations and other insights. Fayyad UM, Piatetsky-Shapiro G, Smyth P. From data mining to knowledge discovery in databases. The bottlenecks of data mining algorithms will become an open issue for the big data analytics which explains that we need to take into account this issue when we develop and design a new data mining algorithm for big data analytics. 3, the gathering, selection, preprocessing, and transformation operators are in the input part. Accuracy (ACC) is another well-known measurement  which is defined as. Available: https://www.mapr.com/blog/top-10-big-data-challenges-look-10-big-data-v. Press G. $16.1 billion big data market: 2014 predictions from IDC and IIA, Forbes, Tech.
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